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On the timeline of human history, paper appeared relatively late, but it has an irreplaceable important position. From November 7 to 29, "the millennium of paper" - the exhibition of ancient Chinese paper culture was held in the municipal library. The exhibition is divided into three chapters, "the development history of paper", "special stationery for paper" and "ancient paper-cut culture", which are presented in the form of pictures and texts. It aims to show the brilliant culture and long history of the motherland by showing the development context and archaeological discoveries of paper culture and the cultural values attached to it

from the knot chronicle to the invention of words, mankind has since opened a new history of civilization. At first, people wrote on oracle bones, bamboo pieces, wood pieces, cloth and silk, and then paper was invented. With the development of society and the improvement of technology, the materials of papermaking are more diverse, the quality of paper is also improved, and handicrafts such as origami and paper cutting are also popular among people with low prices. Due to the invention and application of paper, Chinese ethnic groups have produced a series of social behaviors in life, thoughts, customs, habits and so on, and paper culture has also been born

paper culture with a long history

in ancient times, ancestors mainly relied on knot chronicles. After the invention of words, they began to engrave oracle bones. Later, bamboo, wood and silk were used as writing materials. However, because silk is too expensive and bamboo pieces are too cumbersome, it can only be used in a small range. Until the invention of paper, characters can be widely spread and culture can be promoted

although there is no real object, those pictures are also shocking. Bamboo slips from the pre Qin period, silk books from Mawangdui in the Western Han Dynasty, bamboo slips from Dunhuang and woodblock paintings unearthed in the Han Dynasty have come over a thousand years of history and are full of the wisdom of the ancients. Wang Xizhi's preface to Lanting, Lu Ji's pacification post, the fragments of the fahua Sutra of the Jin Dynasty, Gu Kaizhi's women's history proverbs... People deeply sigh the artistic beauty of calligraphy and painting and the breadth and depth of Chinese traditional culture. The exhibition is like opening a time tunnel, shortening the distance between time and space, and letting the audience feel the depth of history and the massiness of culture

there is no final conclusion about the time when paper came into being. According to the current unearthed cultural relics and relevant materials, ancient paper has been excavated in the tombs of the Western Han Dynasty. Cai Lun invented papermaking in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and made "Caihou paper" from bark, hemp, rags, fishing and other materials. In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, marijuana was used for papermaking, which was the embryonic form of rice paper. In the real sense, rice paper belonged to a kind of silvery paper produced in Shexian County, Anhui Province and other places in the Southern Dynasty, Zhongxin, August 12, according to Russian media reports. The Sui and Tang Dynasties were the heyday of the development of papermaking. The dyeing process of paper appeared, and the dyeing of paper with color became a major feature at that time. During the Tang Dynasty, woodblock printing was invented, and the culture spread more rapidly. In the Song Dynasty, bamboo and Chu skin replaced hemp as the main raw materials for papermaking. To the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the production of paper, rice paper, according to the plastic ocean foundation headquartered in the United States, the craft is becoming increasingly sophisticated

exquisite and elegant stationery

stationery also appeared in order to facilitate the use of paper

paperweights are stationery for pressing books, and they are also known as "Taozi turtle", "xiaoliancheng" and "Qianjun history". The original Paperweight was not fixed in shape. Because ancient literati often put small bronzes and jades on their desks to enjoy, because they all have a certain weight, people will also use them to press paper or books conveniently while enjoying them. Over time, they have developed into a kind of stationery. Ancient paperweights mostly used three-dimensional shapes of rabbits, horses, sheep, deer, toads and other animals. They were small and heavy, and most of them were made of jade, ceramics, copper and crystal. In the exhibition, this small Paperweight is also amazing. Bamboo carving Shanzi book town, purple glass turtle shaped Paperweight, swan shaped Paperweight, etc. are vivid in shape, exquisite in carving, lifelike in shape, and popular in both refined and popular tastes, reflecting the aesthetic taste of the ancients

since the book case appeared, the paper was spread on the case and written from right to left. In order to avoid contamination, the arm rest was placed under the wrist to separate it. The production of this kind of stationery is inseparable from the writing needs. It appeared about the Song Dynasty and was called the secret Pavilion in the Ming Dynasty. Jade arm rests in the Qing palace are usually equipped with wooden seats, indicating that they also have furnishing functions. There are many kinds of materials in the secret Pavilion, but most of them are bamboo carvings. There was a jade, crane, pine and bamboo armrest in the old Qing palace, which was flaky and imitated the shape of a tree stump. The front was embossed with pine trees and cranes, and the back was embossed with emerald bamboo and Narcissus, which was very exquisite and elegant

wax bucket and paste bucket have different shapes and exquisite patterns. In Tu Long's "elegant editing of stationery", there is a record that the paste bucket and the real gold plate A-level fireproof insulation board are wax buckets of thermosetting insulation materials. The paste bucket is mostly made of copper and ceramics. The copper wax bucket was used to hold wax. The ancients sealed it with wax. The Ming people sealed letters with wax in addition to paste

there are also special stationery for paper, such as cutting knife, copper chipping, sawing, light shielding, etc., which are of various styles and quite elegant. There is an ivory base hawksbill shelter lamp, which is composed of a square long rod and its upper part can be inserted and disassembled discs, and the lower part is equipped with an ivory carved quadruped base. In addition, the inner page of the album is made of ivory, rectangular, as thin as paper, with one side glued to each other and can be turned freely. It's really eye opening, but it's a pity that these strange things have no real objects, which makes people feel sorry

colorful paper-cut

legends, grains and livestock, flowers, trees, insects, fish, birds and animals... As a living culture, the Chinese paper-cut tradition promotes the continuous inheritance of living culture with folk belief culture as the core. Folk paper cuts, New Year pictures, sacrificial paper, paper ties, lanterns, kites, paper umbrellas, etc. are the continuation of ancient paper civilization. China is the birthplace and hometown of paper cutting in the world

according to archaeological discoveries, paper cutting has appeared as early as more than 2000 years ago. At first, people used paper cutting as an ornament for sacrifices to ancestors, gods and religious ceremonies. Later, with the popularity of paper cutting technology, it was gradually used to decorate doors and windows, walls, mirrors, lanterns, etc., and even directly sent to each other as gifts

although the paper-cut patterns found cannot form a complete pedigree because they are scattered, some types of patterns can still be seen

the patterns of paper cutting unearthed from Astana ancient tombs in Turpan, Xinjiang include chrysanthemum leaves, chrysanthemums, horses, monkeys, seven people arrangement, and sawtooth patterns. The patterns found in the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang include: Tower, Dharma wheel, brake rod, water vortex backlit Bodhisattva, flag holding Bodhisattva, circular paper money, honeysuckle pattern, plum blossom pattern, and Lianzhu pattern. The paper-cut patterns unearthed from the Tang tomb at the atomic head site in Longxian County, Baoji, Shaanxi Province are preliminarily judged as: Honeysuckle pattern, chrysanthemum pattern, crescent pattern, and semi arc zigzag pattern. The generation of paper-cut graphics is the product of certain cultural thinking, and the names and connotations of many graphics are also closely related to people's oral language

paper cutting carries a wealth of artistic and historical and cultural information in its value connotation, and expresses people's social understanding, moral concepts, practical experience, life ideals and aesthetic interests. It is inextricably linked with people's life and has lasting vitality. It is still popular everywhere. Just like other old traditional and old crafts, it also faces the dilemma of no successor, and urgently needs inheritance and innovation

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